Master the terms
The sustained variation over a long period of time of the Earth’s temperature and weather patterns (e.g., rainfall, snowfall, and wind) so that these otherwise normal patterns become unpredictable. This unpredictability can harm crop growth and lead to catastrophic storms (e.g., hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, and snowstorms). Climate change is correlated with global warming. (The book of jargon – ESG)
CO2 emissions are the release of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. They are a major contributor to climate change, as the gas traps heat in the atmosphere and contributes to the greenhouse effect. CO2 emissions come from a variety of sources, including the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, and natural gas) for energy, industrial processes, transportation, and deforestation. A reduction in emissions is widely recognized as the best way to avoid climate change's worst impacts.
Emission Reductions (ER) are the measurable reduction of release of GHGs into the atmosphere from a specified activity or over a specified area, and a specified period of time measured in a standardized unit of metric ton carbon dioxide equivalent. (The World Bank).
The capture of energy that is generated at one point in time for use at a later time. Storage devices are typically batteries or other accumulators. Energy storage is particularly useful for harnessing solar and wind power for use when the sun or wind are unavailable. (The book of jargon – ESG)
Fossil fuels are a type of non-renewable energy source that is formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. They include coal, oil, and natural gas, and are widely used for energy production, transportation, and a variety of other applications. The extraction and use of fossil fuels has significant environmental impacts, including the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. As a result, there is an increasing focus on transitioning to more sustainable and renewable energy sources.
Gigawatt, a unit for measuring power which is equal to one billion watts or one thousand megawatts.
Greenhouse gases (GHG)
Greenhouse gases are gases that are present in the Earth's atmosphere and absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This radiation is emitted by the Sun, and is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which trap the heat within the atmosphere and don't allow it to go back to space. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O). At the normal level, they help keep the temperature on Earth at a life-sustaining level, but more and more GHGs are emitted into the atmosphere through various human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, industrial processes, and agriculture, and they play a significant role in climate change. Reducing GHG emissions is a key part of efforts to mitigate the impacts of global warming.
Independent Power Producer. A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that is not an electric company, which owns or operates facilities for the generation of electricity for use primarily by the public. (US Energy Information Administration (EIA))
Megawatt. a unit of power equal to one million watts.
One thousand kilowatt-hours or one million watt-hours. (EIA)
Net zero refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere and the amount that are removed from the atmosphere. A net zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions target means that an organization, region, or country is seeking to achieve zero net CO2 emissions by balancing its emissions with an equivalent amount of CO2 removal. This can be achieved through a combination of reducing emissions and implementing measures to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, such as planting trees or using carbon capture technologies. Achieving net zero emissions is seen as an important step in mitigating the impacts of climate change and reducing the risk of negative environmental and health outcomes.
Photovoltaic technology (PV) is the chief method by which solar energy is converted into electrical energy, using solar panels. Solar panels use photons from the sun and convert them directly into electricity. A PV cell absorbs light to knock electrons loose within the cell’s material. When the electrical circuit is connected, these electrons can flow to create a current that is transferred to wires, which in turn can be connected to power networks.
Harnessing wind power began more than 7000 years ago, and today wind turbines can be seen worldwide. Wind turbines work by using the wind’s kinetic energy (through blades) to turn a gear that spins an electric generator. This current can then be transferred through wires and connected to the grid.